(Received July 7, 1992; accepted for publication August 15, 1992)
We have evaluated the resolution of the positive electron-beam (E-beam) resist ZEP-520 using finely focused E-beam exposure for the application of quantum wire fabrication in a large area. Compared with the poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) resist conventionally used for nanofabrication, ZEP resist shows almost the same resolution under sensitivity improvement of one order of magnitude, and the throughput is increased by a factor of more than 100 by introducing a highly bright Zr/O/W thermal field emitter as an E-beam source. Other excellent performance characteristics, such as high dry-etching durability and process stability, allow us to apply ZEP resist for larger-area, high-density quantum wire fabrication. By both wet chemical etching and dry-etching combined with CBE selective growth, InGaAs nanostructures as small as 15 nm can be obtained with a pitch of 70 nm over several hundred µm squares.
KEYWORDS:electron beam lithography, quantum wire, resist, compound semiconductor, chemical etching, selective growth, nanometer lithography, InGaAs