Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43 (2004) pp. 4566-4570 |Previous Article| |Next Article| |Table of Contents|
|Full Text PDF (232K)| |Buy This Article|
New FM Detection Techniques for Scanning Probe Microscopy
CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama-ken 332-0012, Japan
1Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 Japan
(Received January 15, 2004; revised March 27, 2004; accepted April 12, 2004; published July 29, 2004)
New FM demodulation techniques capable of detecting the fast frequency deviation of a cantilever of a noncontact atomic force microscope are proposed and their features were demonstrated by experiments. The techniques entail the frequency conversion of an input FM signal to a pair of zero-Hz-centered signals with a mutual phase difference of 90 deg, differentiation or Hilbert transformation, multiplication and subtraction. Since the center frequency and scale factor are determined by different processes, a high sensitivity, a fast response and a precise center frequency are achievable at the same time. The developed circuitry is capable of detecting a minimum frequency shift of 0.1 Hz. The maximum response bandwidth is 100 kHz.
KEYWORDS:AFM, nanocantilever, FM demodulation, direct conversion, Hilbert transformer
- F. J. Giessibl: Science 267 (1995) 68[Science].
- T. Eguchi and Y. Hasegawa:
Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002) 266105[APS].
- F. J. Giessibl:
Appl. Phys. Lett. 73 (1998) 3956[AIP Scitation].
- F. J. Giessibl, S. Hembacher, H. Bielefeldt and J. Mannhart: Science 289 (2000) 422[Science].
- T. R. Albrecht, P. Grütter, D. Horne and D. Rugar:
J. Appl. Phys. 69 (1991) 668[AIP Scitation].
- D. Kobayashi, S. Kawai and H. Kawakatsu: Proc. Int. Conf. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Related Techniques, Eindhoven, 2003 (AIP Conf. Proc. 696) p. 180.
- U. Dürig and H. R. Steinauer:
J. Appl. Phys. 82 (1997) 3641[AIP Scitation].
- K. Kobayashi, H. Yamada, H. Itoh, T. Horiuchi and K. Matsushige:
Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72 (2001) 4383[AIP Scitation].
- S. D. Bedrosian: IRE Trans. Circuit Theory 7 (1960) 128.
- A. B. Williams and F. J. Taylor: Electronic Filter Design Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988) 2nd ed., p. 7.
- Ch. Loppacher, M. Bammerlin, F. Battiston, M. Guggisberg, D. Müller, H. R. Hidber, R. Lüthi, E. Meyer and H. J. Güntherodt:
Appl. Phys. A 66 (1998) S215[CrossRef].