Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44 (2005) pp. 4735-4748  |Next Article|  |Table of Contents|
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Invited Review Paper

Three-Dimensional Micro- and Nano-Fabrication in Transparent Materials by Femtosecond Laser

Yasuhiko Shimotsuma, Kazuyuki Hirao, Peter G. Kazansky1 and Jiarong Qiu2

Department of Material Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510, Japan
1Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ, United Kingdom
2Photon Craft Project, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Japan Science and Technology Agency, Keihanna-Plaza, Kyoto 619-0237, Japan

(Received February 10, 2005; accepted April 13, 2005; published July 8, 2005)

Femtosecond pulsed lasers have been widely used for materials microprocessing. Due to their ultrashort pulse width and ultrahigh light intensity, the process is generally characterized by the nonthermal diffusion process. We observed various induced microstructures such as refractive-index-changed structures, color center defects, microvoids and microcracks in transparent materials (e.g., glasses after the femtosecond laser irradiation), and discussed the possible applications of the microstructures in the fabrication of various micro optical devices [e.g., optical waveguides, microgratings, microlenses, fiber attenuators, and three-dimensional (3D) optical memory]. In this paper, we review our recent research developments on single femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructures. We introduce the space-selective valence state manipulation of active ions, precipitation and control of metal nanoparticles and light polarization-dependent permanent nanostructures, and discuss the mechanisms and possible applications of the observed phenomena.

DOI: 10.1143/JJAP.44.4735
KEYWORDS:femtosecond laser, nanofabrication, valence state manipulation, nanoparticle precipitation, nanograting

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