Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46 (2007) pp. 3537-3544 |Previous Article| |Next Article| |Table of Contents|
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Growth Mechanism of Indium Tin Oxide Whiskers Prepared by Sputtering
Research Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1150 Hazawa-cho, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama 221-0863, Japan
1Center for Advanced Science and Innovation, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
(Received June 28, 2006; accepted February 27, 2007; published online June 6, 2007)
Whisker structures of indium tin oxide were prepared on a glass substrate by conventional sputtering using an indium-tin alloy target. Whisker structures grew well at higher temperatures than the crystallization temperature of In2O3 and the melting temperature of the In–Sn alloy, and also under the sputtering conditions of comparatively scarce oxygen and a high sputtering rate. These sputtering conditions correspond to the transition mode of reactive sputtering. The whisker structures were categorized into a structure consisting of many needles and a structure consisting of many trunks with side branches. Each whisker was a bcc single crystal growing along the <222> direction and had a spherical droplet-like structure on the tip. Consequently, it was revealed that In–Sn droplets acted as important cores of whisker growth. The indium tin oxide (ITO) whiskers were grown by a self-catalytic vapor–liquid–solid mechanism promoted by the supersaturation of indium vapor.
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