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Non-Contact Respiratory Monitoring with a Bioelectric Impedance Technique to Detect Abnormal Respiration during Bathing
Division of Bio-Information Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-8555, Japan
1Faculty of Health Sciences, Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-0942, Japan
2The First Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194, Japan
3Energy Use R&D Center, The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-0974, Japan
(Received March 27, 2009; revised June 24, 2009; accepted June 30, 2009; published online October 20, 2009)
Preliminary theoretical calculations and examinations were carried out to develop a method of non-contact respiratory monitoring during bathing to detect abnormal respiration using the bioelectric impedance (BEI) technique. First, theoretical calculations regarding the frequency-dependence of the impedance amplitude were made using a two-dimensional model consisting of a circular body and bath water surrounding the body. The body consisted of concentric layered circles representing the lung and the body fluid. The calculations showed that increases in chest size due to inspiration cause a decrease in the impedance amplitude in the frequency range from 1 kHz to 100 MHz. Next, BEI measurements were carried out from 4 to 400 kHz with the pair of electrodes placed in the vicinity of the chest at the maximum-end-expiration and maximum-end-inspiration stages. These provided results consistent with those obtained from the theoretical calculations. Third, the time-dependence of the impedance amplitude was measured at 10, 100, and 400 kHz, respectively. At all of these frequencies, the impedance amplitude corresponded well with the respiratory waveform obtained from rubber strain gauge plethysmography, which was used as a reference.
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