Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50 (2011) 010105 (5 pages) |Previous Article| |Next Article| |Table of Contents|
|Full Text PDF: FREE (463K)|
Selected Topics in Applied Physics
Technology Evolution for Silicon Nano-Electronics
Gas Phase Doping of Arsenic into (100), (110), and (111) Germanium Substrates Using a Metal–Organic Source
1Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
2PRESTO, JST, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan
(Received July 27, 2010; accepted October 7, 2010; published online January 20, 2011)
The gas phase doping of arsenic (As) into (100), (110), and (111) germanium (Ge) substrates at 500 to 700 °C using a metal–organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) system with tertiarybutylarsine (TBAs) as the As source was investigated for the n-type source/drain formation of Ge metal–oxide–semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). The surface concentration of As analyzed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was approximately 1×1019 cm-3 and the diffusion constant was one order of magnitude smaller than that of As induced by ion implantation at 700 °C. The diffusion constant was linearly dependent on the As concentration, and the activation energy and pre-exponential factor of the As diffusion constant were found to be 1.9 eV and 6.2×10-3 cm2/s, respectively. The electron carrier concentration profiles were also evaluated by spreading resistance profiling (SRP) to confirm dopant activation.
PACS: 81.15.Kk, 85.30.Tv, 73.61.Cw, 61.72.uf, 72.80.Cw
- H. Matsubara, T. Sasada, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi:
Appl. Phys. Lett. 93 (2008) 032104[AIP Scitation].
- Y. Nakakita, R. Nakane, T. Sasada, H. Matsubara, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi: IEDM Tech. Dig., 2008, p. 35.
- K. Martens, B. D. Jaeger, R. Bonzom, J. V. Steenbergen, M. Meuris, G. Groeseneken, and H. Maes:
IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27 (2006) 405[CrossRef].
- C. O. Chui, F. Ito, and K. C. Saraswat: IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53 (2006) 1501.
- F. A. Trumbore: Bell Syst. Tech. J. 39 (1960) 205.
- C. O. Chui, K. Gopalakrishnan, P. B. Griffin, J. D. Plummer, and K. C. Saraswat:
Appl. Phys. Lett. 83 (2003) 3275[AIP Scitation].
- H. Shang, K. L. Lee, P. Kozlowski, C. D'Emic, I. Babich, E. Sikorski, M. Ieong, H.-S. P. Wong, K. Guarini, and W. Haensch:
IEEE Electron Device Lett. 25 (2004) 135[CrossRef].
- W. C. Dunlap:
Phys. Rev. 94 (1954) 1531[APS].
- W. Albers: Solid-State Electron. 2 (1961) 85.
- K. Lehovec and C. Pihl: J. Electrochem. Soc. 108 (1961) 552.
- H. Bracht and S. Brotzmann: Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9 (2006) 471.
- S. Brotzmann and H. Bracht:
J. Appl. Phys. 103 (2008) 033508[AIP Scitation].
- S. Takagi: VLSI Symp., 2003, p. 115.
- D. B. Cuttriss: Bell Syst. Tech. J. 40 (1961) 509.
- C. D. Thurmond: J. Electrochem. Soc. 122 (1975) 1133.