A microscopic model of the memory traps has been developed that is consistent with the known properties of the MNOS devices. In this model, the memory traps are attributed to the silicon dangling bonds in the silicon nitride. The resultant trap center is amphoteric in nature, possessing either a positively or a negatively charged state. The dangling bond model is applied towards the interpretation of MNOS properties, including retention and endurance.
In addition, the model was used to explain and further develop the tailored-trap-distribution gate-dielectric MNOS memory transistor.